Molecular Biology

Molecular Genetics

gene regulation

Gene regulation mechanisms in eukaryotes, which possess a nuclear membrane, differ from those in prokaryotes. Because prokaryotes lack a nuclear membrane, simultaneous translation of a gene may commence before transcription is complete.

In eukaryotes mechanisms for control of gene expression:
a. Most commonly affect the rate of transcription.
b. Some alter the rate of RNA processing within the nucleus.
c. Some affect the stability and degradation of RNA molecules (nonsense-mediated decay, nonstop decay).
d. Some control the efficiency of ribosomal translation into ribosomal polypeptides and proteins.
e. Some allow for alternative splicing, which generates different proteins from the same archival DNA template.
f. Epigenetic mechanisms modify mRNAs.

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